The Age of Sail is known in European terms to cover about 300 years, between the late 1400s to the late 1700s. It is the history of sailboats and ships as propelled by wind power, rather than by human power on boats with oars or paddles. Most notably, it marks the period when people and goods were transported and battles were fought on sailing ships. The most advanced sailing technology of each era constantly changed over the centuries, from the lugsail-rigged Chinese junk (about 200 C.E.) to square-rigged ships merchant ships (about 1860).
1. Commentaries on this history provide insight on the intricate relationship between the nations’ economies, their sovereignty and relative power on the world’s stage.
America and the Sea : a Maritime History / Benjamin W. Labaree. Published by Mystic Seaport, 1998. This book is about ships and the maritime history of the United States. It has a very broad and formal outline of “the relationship of America to the sea”, see Introduction. In this book you will hardly find ships plans or technical details about ship design, but rather an account of what happened in each era of the development of the United States in four parts. The first part begins with a description of native American use of boats, followed by European explorers; the fourth part describes ships and the maritime history of commerce and the military in the twentieth century.
See more on America and the Sea at LibraryThing.com
See more on The Way of the Ship at LibraryThing.com
The Way of the Ship: America’s Maritime History Reenvisioned, 1600-2000. / Alex Roland, W. Jeffrey Bolster, Alexander Keyssar. Published by John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2008. The Way of the Ship charts the growth of maritime America and its strength in overseas trade and inland transport. There is also a glossary of shipping terms, chapter notes, and an index.
Is the book suitable for ready reference, or quick answers? Yes, to the extent that the book is chronologically arranged and its sections are listed with specific chapter headings. However, the subject requires reading essays to gain a sense of the history. So it is significant for the careful consideration by the authors in specific historical eras. The detail provided in this book of forty-six essays makes it a valuable resource for not only maritime but also social and economic history.
For more illustrations a visual encyclopedic reference can be found in Ship: the Epic Story of Maritime Adventure: it’s a reference work, a book you can open to any page for visual reference to historical fact.
2. Design and engineering reviews of ships in terms of their capacity to hold goods or achieve speed or to defend a nation provide visual and textual content that accurately describe ships at particular eras of change in hull and or motive power.
The History of American Sailing Ships ./ Howard Chapelle; with drawings by the author, and George C. Wales and Henry Rusk. Published by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, 1935.
The History of American Sailing Ships by Howard Chapelle is considered a classic text on the history of ships. The author has provided line illustrations of the wide variety of wooden sailing ships. There are 81 plans and lines, the naval architectural drawings of ketches, sloops, revenue cutters, schooners, yachts; and plates, folded out drawings of frigates, packets, schooners and barkentines.
The History of American Sailing Navy. / Howard Chapelle. Published by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, 1949.
The History of American Sailing Navy by Howard Chapelle continues the author’s expertise in shipbuilding history and technology. Model builders consult Chapelle’s books for details not easily available otherwise.
See more books on the History of Sail at LibraryThing.com
The Journal of Diving History publishes histories of international diving and divers written by diving enthusiasts and practitioners. The journal began with the Summer Issue, 1993 with the title Historical Diver, a title that remained until 2008 when it became The Journal of Diving History.
Articles in Historical Diver feature biographies, events and milestones in diving history from the 19th century as well as articles on famous divers. Hans Hass is featured in Issue No. 9, Fall 1996, “Hans Hass Pioneer Swim Diving”. His innovations are highlighted subsequent issues and the Summer 2013 issue of The Journal of Diving History ran a feature-length article on his life and work. See the Library’s blog on Hass.
“Sea Hunt: Television’s Epic Underwater Adventure” is the main article in Issue 16, summer 1998 of Historical Diver. “Zale Parry: the First Lady of American Diving” and “Lotte Hass Diving’s International Leading Lady” are two articles highlighting the achievements of women divers.
Jacques Cousteau is also featured in Historical Diver with a Jacques Yves cousteau Commemorative Issue published in Fall 1997. In Spring 1998, Historical Diver ran the feature “Cousteau and Hass, an Early Timeline”. “100 Years of Jacques Yves Cousteau” is celebrated in the Summer 20120 issue of The Journal of Diving History.
The Library also holds a collection of books on deep diving and diving history. Please see the online catalog for a listing or call the Library more information at 310-548-7618.
20,000 Divers Under the Sea : a History of the Mediterranean and Western Atlantic Sponge Trades with an Account of Early Deep Diving. / by Torrance R. Parker. Published by Sub-Sea Archives, 2013.
The Library’s collections cover the history of deep diving and some of its technical aspects. The recently-published book on sponge diving was added to our collections.
Other histories of diving focus on deep diving, ocean engineering, underwater exploration, diving in the navy, and offshore oil well drilling. Our collection contains a variety of resources such as books by well-known authors and practitioners Torrance Parker, Jacques Cousteau, and translations from French authors, symposium proceedings, and technical manuals. The Library also holds a complete series of The Journal of Diving History. Please call the Library for more information at 310-548-7618.
Deep Diving History: See our online catalog for books on the subject of deep diving.
Jack London (1876-1916) is an author of stories about the frontiers of the American West, Alaska, and the peoples of the Pacific Islands. He was also a photographer and journalist who was featured in a travelling exhibit at the Museum. His best known works described the Alaskan Gold Rush: Call of the Wild, White Fang, and Sea Wolf. Equally compelling but lesser known are his Pacific Island stories which they grew out of his experiences sailing the Ocean between 1908-1916.
The Cruise of the Snark. / Jack London. Published by Mills and Boon, Limited, 1911.
Jack London, photographer. / Jeanne Campbell Reesman, Sara S. Hodson, and Philip Adam. Published by University of Georgia Press, 2010.
Selections Novels and Stories. / Jack London. Published by Library of America, 1982.
Selections. Novels and Social Writings. / Jack London. Published by Library of America, 1982.
Stories of Hawaii. / Jack London. Edited by A. Grove Day. Published by Mutual Publishing, 1986, c1965.
Tales of the Pacific. / Jack London. Published by Penguin Books, 1989.
Jack London in Aloha-land. / Charmian Kittredge London. Author of “Voyaging in Wild Seas”. Published by Kegan Paul, Distributed by Columbia University Press, New York, 2002.
Jack London, Sailor on Horseback; A Biographical Novel by Irving Stone. Published by doubleday and Company, Inc., 1937.
Jack London’s Tales of Cannibals and Headhunters : Nine South Seas Stories by America’s Master of Adventure. / Jack London. Edited and annotated by Gary Riedl and Thomas R. Tietze. Published by University of New Mexico Press, 2006.
A powerfully-engaged man, London traveled to Asia as a war correspondent in the Russo-Japanese War, photographing people and conditions there. He also appeared in England where he posed homeless along London’s quays so he could study the struggles of poverty and wrote “The People of the Abyss”, an acknowledged and socially-charged statement of the times (early 1900).
See the Library’s blog posts on Jack London here.
New books in the Library are featured titles on this website. In our collections more titles on the same subject may be seen at the Library’s online catalog at LibraryThing.com.
Captain “Hell Roaring” Mike Healy: From American Slave to Artic Hero / Dennis Noble and Truman Strobridge. Published by University Press of Florida, 2009.
The Empire of Necessity: Slavery, Freedom and Decpetion in the New World / Greg Grandin. Published by Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt, 2014.
List of Merchant Vessels of the United States (title is from the cover), was published at various times by the United States Treasury Department, the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Navigation, and the United States Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard. The Library has volumes published 1884, 1886-1887; 1891-1989 (with some years missing).
The List of Merchant Vessels of the United States, updated each year, is a ship’s register with offical numbers and scantlings (measurements of the structural parts) for ships. This means a researcher can consult this reference for a ship’s length and breadth, tonnage, crew size, type of ship, propulsion, date and location of construction and home port, and owner’s name. Prior to consulting the reference, all that is needed is a date and ship’s name. Of the appendices, “Former Names Showing Present Names” and “Vessels Lost” help to historically define a particular ship or it’s demise. The series is in constant use for reference. Contact us for a request by filing in the form on this page.
Merchant Marine is a term defined in the Random House Dictionary of the English Language as “…1. the vessels of a nation that are engaged in commerce…”, and “… 2. the officers and crews of such vessels…”. The concept of merchant ships in the service of the military developed during and after the Civil War, yet the American history of merchant shipping dates back to the early 1600s (see John Spears, The Story of the American Merchant Marine.).
Ocean-going commerce expanded up until the 1850s, due to the highly-valued craftsmanship of wooden ships (see Benjamin Labaree, America and the Sea: A Maritime History.), which later could not compete with new technologies of steam and industrial shipbuilding enjoyed by other maritime nations. The 20th century witnessed the Merchant Marine Act of 1936 and the later recognition of the United States Merchant Marine veterans by President Reagan in 1988 for service in World War II.
The Library collection includes: Bibliographies and Periodicals, Histories, Labor Law, Navigation, Seamanship, Ship Registers and Yearbooks, and Shipbuilding Histories.
The The Library collection online includes material on many topics such as merchant ships and merchant seamen and crews: ship registers, histories and periodicals. The Merchant Marine in the World Wars is also represented.
Art from postcard issued circa 1912, is labelled “California Yacht Club and Harbor, Wilmington, Calif.”
The term Marine Art, alternatively ships in art, refers to paintings, prints and objects created well before the photographic image captured maritime history. Marine art is represented in both the Library’s and the Museum’s Collections of artists who depicted ships, sailors, masters, crew, and objects of maritime significance primarily of the Victorian Era through the 20th century (1830s to 1999).
For a definition of the history of portraying the sea and ships in pictures, see Peter Kemp, in the Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea, 1976, page 521, who recounts: “… the earliest known pictures of ships and boats are those which decorate Egyptian pottery… around 3200 B.C.”, and further, that “… representations of the sea and ships appear in many paintings of the early Renaissance…” and, further, that “… the true birth of marine painting… occurred in Holland in the late 16th century.”.
Later in his entry on Marine painting, on page 524, Kemp discloses, “… world wars of the 20th century produced a plethora of marine artists… a result of naval appointments of painters as official artists to record scenes of naval activity.” A sample of this interest in illustrating the Navy in action can be found in the Museum’s Current Exhibit.
Paintings of ships and maritime views may be found in many works that are not about art, but have used paintings as illustrations of a historical text.
Searching for artists or painters by name is facilitated by dictionaries or encyclopedias. Two such works available at the Los Angeles Maritime Museum research Library are selected here:
The Marine Paintings and Drawings in the Peabody Museum by M.V. and Dorothy Brewington. Published by The Peabody Museum of Salem, 1981. 535 pages, index, illustrations, color and black and white.
The Marine Painting and Drawings in the Peabody Museum is a catalog of visual images of the nineteenth century, especially of the merchant marine vessels of any type; not Navy vessels, but ships used in trade and transport of goods across oceans and on inland waterways. To find an artist or ship, look alphabetically for an artist’s name, or look by port name or vessel name by consulting the Index. The text is rich with information; this is not a book to read but to glean information and data from.
Paintings you will find in this book are exemplified by this image, found on Wikipedia, of the Forteviot. The ship is shown in rough seas, with full sun illuminating the sails and careful delineation of the rigging, sails, hull, flags, and other details, a hallmark of the artist, Antonio Nicolo Gasparo, 1850-1921. His style, from the late 1880s to 1920, was extremely popular and is stylistically indicative of the era of sail and early days of steam.
Dictionary of Sea Painters by E.H.H. Archibald. Published by The Antique Collector’s Club, Ltd., 1989. 575 pages, index, illustrations.
Dictionary of Sea Painters is a resource with an international focus, that identifies artists and their works beginning with Dutch painters of the 1600s and, including painters from all countries, extending through the middle of the twentieth century. The preliminary chapter consists of “Sea Paintings–Identification and Dating” which outlines and illustrates the aspects of marine illustration: flags(shown in full color), ship profiles, picture content, and coastal craft (dated). The dictionary of names follows and finally a chapter of plates, consisting of 932 black and white paintings. Over 30 color plates are interspersed throughout the text.
The Los Angeles Maritime Museum’s collections of paintings and other works of art may be consulted separately: please call the Museum for more information at 310-548-7618.
Nearly two centuries of history and biography are the subjects of new books in the Library. More details about these books can be seen in our online catalog at LibraryThing.com or on our Blog, Adventures of Maritime History.
1. Alaska and the U.S. Cutter Revenue Service 1867-1915. / Truman R. Strobridge and Dennis L. Noble.
2. Faces of War: The Untold Stories of Edward Steichen’s World War II Photographers. / Mark D. Faram.
3. Our America : A Hispanic History of the United States. / Felipe Fernandez-Armesto.
4. The Way of the Ship: America’s Maritime History Reenvisioned 1600-1800. / Alex Roland, W. Jeffrey Bolster, Alexander Keyssar.
5. Shipwright 2013. The International Annual of Maritime History and Ship Model Making. / Edited by John Bowen and Jean Hood.
6. U.S. Navy Uniforms and Insignia, 1943-1946. / Jeff Warner.
7. Challenging the Deep. / Hans Hass.
8. Aboard the Fabre Line to Providence: Immigration to Rhode Island. / William J. Jennings & Patrick T. Conley.
9. The Empire of Necessity: Slavery, Freedom and Deception in the New World. / Greg Grandin.
10. I Cover the Waterfront. / Max Miller.
11. The Panama Route, 1848-1869. / John Haskell Kemble.
12. A Voyage to California, the Sandwich Islands and Around the World in the Years 1826-1829. / Auguste Duhaut-Cilly.
From left to right in the image: Robert Smalls (1839-1915), Frederick Douglass (1818-1895), Marcus Garvey (1887-1940), and Matthew Henson (1866-1955) are just four of many, many heroes in history from just before the Civil War into the early twentieth Century. for more information on book titles that cover this period, see the Library’s online catalog for books in our collections .
These books represent new purchases and donations of historical fiction and non-fiction for your reading pleasure at home. Borrow a book for up to three weeks with your Museum Membership Card.
A new purchase in the Library, “At Drake’s Command: The Adventures of Peregrine James during the Second navigation of the World” by David Wesley Hill, Temurlone Books, 2012.
See a partial listing of our Lending Library at Library Thing.
View the Library Blog Adventures of Maritime History from the Los Angeles Maritime Museum Research Library.
The Los Angeles Maritime Museum Research Library is located within the Museum. Click here to check the hours and to visit the library. Or call 310-548-7618 Fax: 310-832-6537